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Entered into force March 27, 2001.

This Agreement entered into force on the date on which the last instrument of ratification, acceptance, or approval of Japan, Russia and the United States was deposited in accordance with Art. 25(3a) of the Agreement. The Agreement entered into force for the European Partner following receipt by the depositary of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession from at least four European signatory or acceding States, and, in addition, a formal notification by the Chairman of the ESA Council, in accordance with Art. 25(3b) of the Agreement.

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U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future