I. Operational Benefits to U.S. Forces
The President's National Security Strategy and U.S. Defense Strategy set directions for security and defense policy. The U.S. defense strategy goals are to: (1) assure allies and friendly nations of U.S. commitment to their security; (2) dissuade future military competition; (3) deter aggression and coercion; and (4) decisively defeat any adversary if deterrence fails.
DoD Security Cooperation is an important instrument for executing this strategy. Security Cooperation advances U.S. security interests building defense partnerships for the future. DoD Security Cooperation also prepares the United States, allies, and friendly nations for unforeseen circumstances, enabling us to respond effectively when such events occur.
DoD Security Cooperation involves all the following objectives:
Build defense relationships that promote specific U.S. security interests;
Develop allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and coalition operations, including allied transformation;
Improve information exchange and intelligence sharing to harmonize views on security challenges; and
Provide U.S. forces with peacetime and contingency access and en route infrastructure.
Seven defense policy themes guide U.S. security cooperation activities:
transforming alliances and building coalitions for the future,
influencing the direction of key powers,
cooperating with parties to regional disputes,
deterring and isolating problem states,
combating weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and
realigning the global defense posture.
The Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) ensures that its international military training and education program activities align with the above objectives and support Regional Combatant Commanders' Theater Security Cooperation (TSC) strategies. The focus is on activities of greatest mutual benefit and DSCA uses the guidance to allocate time and resources.
Security cooperation training programs, appropriately focused and scoped, can build capabilities of allies and friendly nations to defend themselves and to conduct coalition operations. The programs also afford U.S. forces greater access, and bolster deterrence by influencing the behaviors of potential adversaries. Drawdowns of defense articles and services, directed by the President in response to urgent requirements, are also managed as part of the foreign military assistance program. The foreign military assistance program enables allies and friendly nations to acquire U.S. defense articles, services, and training for legitimate self-defense and for participation in multinational security efforts. The programs described in this report serve as the foundation of U.S. efforts to assist U.S. allies and friendly nations in their efforts to develop professional, civilian-controlled militaries. To be effective, future military leaders in foreign countries, like their U.S. counterparts, benefit from education and experience in military operations and basic military competencies. U.S. professional military education (PME) courses and exchanges as well as Service Academies provide current and future foreign military leaders with the professional development required to lead and maintain effective military forces under democratic civilian control. The skills they learn, both at the tactical level, such as in the ALP program, and the strategic level, such as in our senior service schools, offer interoperability benefits to both foreign and U.S. forces.
International military training and education programs, whether financed internally by the beneficiary nation through FMS, or by the United States through FMF, IMET, INL, ACOTA, EIPC, REGIONAL CENTERS FOR SECURITY STUDIES, CDTS, MA, HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE, CTFP, SERVICE ACADEMIES, ALP, PME EXCHANGES, COAST GUARD ACTIVITIES, or JCET ACTIVITIES enable the United States to positively influence the development of foreign military institutions and individuals and their role in democratic societies. These programs help the United States build regional security arrangements and fight terrorism. The military-to-military contacts allow the United States and its partners to shape the strategic landscape, protect shared interests, and promote stability.
Expanded-IMET (E-IMET), mandated by the U.S. Congress as part of the overall IMET program, opens the IMET program to participants who would not typically be part of a defense-related IMET training program. By including representatives from non-governmental organizations and national parliamentarians to address topics such as defense resource management, military justice, civil-military relations and human rights, E-IMET courses reinforce civil-military values and promote democratization. The Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS) provides international education and training in topics related to military justice, human rights, rule of law, and building a legal response to terrorism. DIILS programs serve to promote regional security and encourage stable military armed forces that abide by rule of law principles.
Promoting democracy does more than foster U.S. ideals. It advances U.S. interests because the larger the pool of democracies, the better off the entire community of nations will be. The absence of capable or responsible governments in many countries creates a fertile ground for drug trafficking and terrorism. Democratic values of transparency and accountability will continue to prove critical in both the political and the economic realms to ensure sustainable development and stable societies. These values will also affect the way nations interact, enhance openness and ultimately promote mutual confidence and regional stability. Two important programs that promote democracy are Humanitarian Assistance and Mine Action. By meeting these immediate and critical needs of the civilian population, this bolsters the credibility of the civilian government. In addition, the fact that US aid was used to do so increases the good opinion of the United States in the eyes of the civilian population being aided.
All of the military training and security assistance authorities clearly benefit U.S. allies and friendly nations, but we must also consider the benefits gained by our own military. Several programs are specifically designed to benefit our military personnel. The fact that our allies and friendly nations, as well as U.S. military personnel, have the opportunity to exchange experience and expertise, enhances their overall knowledge and understanding of each other's political systems, ways of life, military organizations, languages, and cultures. Participating in these training programs also improves U.S. forces' understanding of the worldwide surroundings in which they may be called upon to serve. The training programs clearly play a key role in improving the professional competence of U.S. personnel through both traditional classroom activities and in the field environment.
The operational justification for the JCET program centers on the vital contribution that U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) make to our national security. SOF units may be sent into unstable areas in a variety of contexts short of major theater war, and are often the lead elements deployed in actual combat. SOF are among the most flexible U.S. units to respond to the vast array of new missions. It is essential that the United States maintain SOF readiness at the highest possible level. The JCET program promotes both generic SOF skills and the region-specific expertise required to maintain a highly ready SOF unit. JCET events are conducted with friendly foreign countries with full cooperation between the Departments of Defense and State and are reported annually to the Congress under 10 U.S.C. 2011(e).
Peacekeeping training programs provide our allies and friendly nations with the opportunity not only to train their forces but also to eventually develop their own peacekeeping training. The Department of State funds two programs which focus on increasing the peacekeeping capabilities of our allies and friendly nations. The African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program is designed to provide trained and equipped contingents with the ability to respond quickly and efficiently to peace operations support and humanitarian relief events where needed. The focus of effort is on training African trainers, who in turn train units under U.S. mentorship, thus building African capability, potentially reducing the humanitarian burden on the U.S. The increased regional stability created by and enhanced African peace support capacity also serves U.S. interests in promoting African democracy and economic growth. The other program, the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities Initiative (EIPC), focuses on institutional development of national peacekeeping training centers. EIPC works closely with the national peacekeeping centers, training their instructors and staff to develop their own peacekeeping training. Both programs share the same goal - to enhance the region's team of proficient peacekeepers, which will need only limited support from the United States.
Two programs that focus on enhancing the region's counternarcotics elimination are INL and CDTS. Both programs share the same goal to strengthen foreign government ability to identify, confront, and disrupt the operation of international drug and crime groups before they reach American soil. Doing so lessens, if not eliminates, the requirement for direct US action in those nations.
The Regional Centers for Security Studies are valuable strategic communications tools for creating a dialogue on U.S. security policy with key allies and partners in a regional context. The Regional Centers' mission is to foster regional cooperation on security issues through education of foreign military, civilian, and nongovernmental officials. Their principal objectives include countering ideological support for terrorism, harmonizing views on common security challenges, and educating on the role of defense forces in civil societies. Regional Centers accomplish their mission primarily through multilateral three/four-month leadership development courses, conferences, and seminars, as well as through bilateral workshops, alumni outreach events, and research publications.
The Regional Defense Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP) is a critical tool for providing flexible, targeted education and training to support our partners and allies in the fight against terrorism. By providing education and training focused on combating terrorism, the CTFP plays a significant role in U.s. efforts to defeat global terrorism. The CTFP has taken the lead in transforming the way we provide military assistance to respond to the threat of terror by creating new educational programs directly focused on defeating terrorism, building a world-wide community of counterterrorism experts and practitioners, developing a consortium of DoD's academic experts in combating terror, and using educational initiatives to build regional solutions to terrorist threats. The flexibility and responsiveness of the CTFP allows us to quickly adapt our training and education efforts to meet the changing regional or global security environment. In short, the CTFP is changing the way we approach military assistance.
The U.S. Coast Guard activities benefit the US by training foreign country forces to conduct activities that increase their port security and marine safety, which protects US commercial and military ships.
Finally, as we contend with the difficult challenges of the Global War on Terrorism, we must provide our military forces with the operational benefits international education, training, and security cooperation activities afford them.