The TE identifies technologies with potential application in countering propaganda and disinformation (CPD). Notable CPD technology categories of interest include:

Social Listening Tools

Social listening tools help users understand the online information environment by extracting, grouping, or computing information from social media channels. Specific benefits may include understanding the spread of information over social media, identifying bots and trolls, or analyzing media campaign effectiveness.

AdTech Tools

Advertising technology – “adtech” – tools conduct market analysis so that users can direct content and messaging towards key target audiences.

Manipulated Information Assessment Tools

Manipulated information assessment tools rely on contextual clues to alert users when they are consuming media (text, visual, or audio) that may have been manipulated or part of a disinformation campaign.

Dark Web Monitoring Tools

Dark web monitoring tools alert users to information campaign activities in marketplaces on the dark web. These tools may be useful in identifying and preparing for propaganda and disinformation activities that could later appear on the surface web.

Blockchain-Based Media Authentication Tools

Blockchain-based media authentication technology records a decentralized, digital record of uploaded content, creating a “fingerprint” so records cannot be altered retroactively. This aids in ensuring the validity of original content and can provide a bulwark against claims of doctored media.

Fact-Checking Tools

Fact-checking tools aggregate, analyze, and provide ratings on information source quality using a variety of metrics. They can help users determine the source credibility.

Gamified Education Tools

Games and other web-based tools can increase resilience against disinformation by improving awareness and critical thinking. These tools facilitate digital and media learning, quantifiably improve cognitive performance, and can familiarize users with common tactics of disinformation.


Internet Freedom Tools

Certain technologies can protect internet users against state-imposed internet censorship. They can aid the continued flow of information, promote free expression, and potentially increase digital security for at-risk users.

Crowd-Sourced Content Assessments and Web Annotation Tools

By enlisting group expertise to evaluate topics and incorporate layers of assessments at various stages, crowd-sourced content assessments can evaluate news quality. Similarly, web annotation tools can enable independent dialogue and alternative viewpoints directly through online content to facilitate discussion and debate.

For more information on tools and technologies associated with these categories, please visit our Disinfo Cloud platform.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future