The United States and Ethiopia share a long-standing and important partnership based on mutual interests in promoting peace, stability, and economic development. The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Ethiopia since 1903.
Recent Conflict and Its Aftermath
On November 2, 2022, under the auspices of the African Union and with the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, the United Nations, and the United States as observers, the Government of Ethiopia and Tigray People’s Liberation Front signed the “Agreement for Lasting Peace through a Permanent Cessation of Hostilities” (COHA), ending the conflict that broke out in November 2020. The COHA is in effect and in the implementation phase.
Humanitarian and Development Assistance
The United States is the largest bilateral donor in Ethiopia. Since 2020, the United States has provided an estimated $3.16 billion in humanitarian assistance in response to the conflict as well as an ongoing drought.
The United States spent approximately $1.93 billion in FY 2022. Most of this funding went towards humanitarian aid, with USAID and the State Department providing $1.55 billion. Drought-related assistance supports agriculture; food assistance; nutrition; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH); protection of vulnerable populations; and health activities. The State Department’s Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration provided more than $140 million in protection and multi-sectoral assistance for refugees, IDPs, and conflict victims.
The United States also provided $379 million in non-humanitarian, development assistance in FY 2022 to promote health, food security, and civil society.
Over the past 20 years, the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has invested nearly $3 billion to support HIV/AIDS response in Ethiopia. PEPFAR investments helped to strengthen the health system through workforce development, improving infrastructure to support HIV services, and supported the establishment of a national Health Information System throughout the country to address HIV. Close to half a million people living with HIV are now living on PEPFAR-supported treatment at more than 1,000 sites nationally, and HIV deaths declined by more than 50 percent since PEPFAR’s launch. In 2022, PEPFAR provided HIV testing and counseling services for nearly 2.7 million adults, almost 350,000 orphans and vulnerable children and their caretakers. In FY 2024, PEPFAR has obligated $111 million, a $5 million budget increase for post-conflict recovery activities.
The U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) has invested $544 million to support the fight against malaria in Ethiopia since 2008. Since PMI launched in Ethiopia, all-cause mortality rates of children under five years of age have fallen over 50 percent, and the program delivered 50 million mosquito nets, more than 9 million rapid diagnostic tests, 15 million fast acting malaria medicines, and sprayed over 12 million homes with insecticide to protect residents from mosquitoes.
Human Rights Assistance
The Department’s Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (DRL) currently programs about $6.65 million to advance democracy, respect for human rights and conflict mitigation in Ethiopia. In addition, DRL anticipates spending $1.975 million to support independent investigations of human rights atrocities and justice and accountability processes for alleged atrocities committed by all sides in Ethiopia.
The Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs anticipates spending approximately $3 million on atrocities response and justice programs in 2023.
USAID spent $1 million on human rights assistance in 2022.
Climate and Food Security
Through the World Food Program and the Joint Emergency Operation consortium of implementing non-governmental organizations, U.S. assistance will reach more than 13 million extremely food-insecure Ethiopians.
Ethiopia is one of the target countries for Feed the Future (FTF), the U.S. government’s flagship global hunger and food security initiative. FTF works hand-in-hand with partner countries to develop their food systems to be resilient, inclusive, and sustainable, and break the vicious cycle of poverty, hunger, and malnutrition.