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A. Institutional Framework

Part A: Constant

The Clean Diamond Trade Act (Public Law 108-19) (CDTA) established a Kimberley Process (KP) Implementation Coordinating Committee to coordinate implementation of the CDTA.  Provisions of the CDTA are implemented by several U.S. government agencies and the private non-profit U.S. Kimberley Process Authority (USKPA).  The U.S. Department of State (State) and the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Census Bureau (Census), have a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the USKPA, providing a formal structure for government oversight of the private sector’s implementation of the CDTA.  Additionally, the U.S. KP Focal Point sits on the board of the USKPA to serve as a liaison and improve coordination and oversight.  U.S. entities involved in implementation of the CDTA and points of contact include:

United States Kimberley Process Focal Point
Pamela Fierst-Walsh
Senior Advisor for Conflict Minerals and the Kimberley Process
U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs
2201 C Street, NW
Washington DC 20520
(202) 647-6116

Alternate United States Kimberley Process Focal Point
George P. Cajati
U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs
2201 C Street, NW
Washington DC 20520
(202) 647-3189

Exporting Authority
Carolyn Francis
U.S. Census Bureau
4600 Silver Hill Road
Room 5K167
Washington, DC 20233
(301) 763-7016

Importing Authority
Jerry Malmo, Director
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Office of Trade
1400 L Street, NW 20229
(202) 863-6655

United States Kimberley Process Authority
Dr. Martin Hochbaum, Executive Director
801 Second Avenue, Suite 303
New York, NY 10017
(212) 997-2002

Advance Notifications should be sent to:  and

Confirmations/Reconciliations should be sent to:

Part B: Variable

No changes in 2019.

B. Legal Framework

Part A: Constant

The CDTA provides the legal framework pursuant to which the United States implements the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS).  It is available at: .

The CDTA is further implemented by Executive Order 13312 (July 29, 2003).  Pursuant to this Executive Order, Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) issued the Rough Diamonds Control Regulations, on September 23, 2004 (31 CFR Part 592).  The regulations have subsequently been amended, most recently on June 19, 2018.  The Final Rule is available at: .

The amendments clarified several reporting requirements and removed another; clarified which entity may issue KP certificates for the export of rough diamonds from the United States; clarified the steps necessary to validate a KP certificate; added two definitions that define rough diamond packaging requirements and what constitutes a KP voided certificate; and made certain technical and conforming changes to the penalties section of the regulations. The complete text of the Regulations can be accessed at: .

The U.S. Census Bureau issued regulations on Automated Export System (AES) reporting requirements for rough diamond shipments in October 2003 (15 CFR Part 30).  The complete text of the regulations can be accessed at .

These regulations were amended most recently on April 24, 2018 in a Final Rule titled Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Clarification on the Collection and Confidentiality of Kimberley Process Certificates that was published in the Federal Register.  The rule amends the FTR to clarify that the data collected from the KP certificates are collected in accordance with the CDTA.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) amended its regulations in 2013 to set forth the prohibitions and conditions applicable to the importation and exportation of rough diamonds.  In addition to restating pertinent provisions of the Rough Diamonds Control Regulations, the amendments (added at 19 CFR 12.152) clarify recordkeeping requirements for KP certificates.

Part B: Variable

Updated lists of KP Participants are published periodically in the U.S. Federal Register.  The most recent list was published on July 5, 2019 to reflect the addition of the Republic of Gabon and can be found at: .

C. Import and Export Regimes

Part A: Constant

CBP is designated as the Importing Authority in the CDTA and implementing regulations and has the authority to enforce import provisions relating to the KP, including verification of KP Certificates.  Primary investigative responsibilities and duties are under U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Homeland Security Investigations (ICE/HSI).

Census is designated as the KP Exporting Authority in the United States.  Census collects, compiles, and publishes trade data, including KP statistical data and export-reporting requirements for all shipments of rough diamonds.

The USKPA establishes and maintains licensing agreements with entities under which such entities (licensees) are authorized to issue KP certificates for individual exports of rough diamonds.

Part B: Variable

In 2019, the vast majority of rough diamonds imported into the United States entered through ports of entry in the jurisdiction of CBP’s New York Field Office.  Specifically, John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport had the highest volume of imported rough diamonds of any U.S. port of entry.

CBP recognized the need to promote a greater understanding of the rough diamond trade and provided training to field personnel located at the ports of JFK, Newark, Atlanta, and Buffalo in 2019.  While some of these field offices are not major import hubs for rough diamonds, they had not received training on the KP in the past several years.  The goal of the training was to enhance the knowledge and expertise of CBP field personnel involved in the processing of imports and exports and the enforcement of the KPCS.  The training provided an opportunity for CBP field personnel to learn the fundamental requirements related to rough diamond importation into and exportation from the United States, ask questions about the CDTA, and learn how to discern authentic KP certificates.  The training sessions involved CBP personnel, CBP attorneys, and ICE/HSI agents.

In October 2019, with the assistance of the USKPA, U.S. government agencies conducted a training session for USKPA licensees to provide updates from the KP and reinforce knowledge of fundamental requirements related to rough diamond importation and exportation.  Customs issues related to the KP and CDTA were also discussed to enhance licensees’ compliance with the KP and CDTA.

In December 2019, U.S. government agencies conducted outreach by visiting Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas.  Members of the U.S. diamond industry also participated.  The purpose of the trip was to assist the park with its CDTA compliance.  Outreach covered the fundamental requirements related to rough diamond exportation and importation, logistics for export, the KP certificate issuance process, as well as requirements and the process for becoming a licensee of the USKPA.

C/1 Outgoing Shipments

Part A: Constant

Shipment information must be reported to Census through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE), AES, or a successor system.  The Internal Transaction Number (ITN) generated by the AES is assigned to a shipment, which confirms the Electronic Export Information was accepted and is on file in the AES.  The ITN must be documented on the U.S. KP certificate, which completes the validation process for the exportation of rough diamonds from the United States, per federal regulations 31 CFR 592.301. A copy of the KP certificate must be faxed by the U.S. Principal Party in Interest (USPPI) or U.S. authorized agent to Census, or provided by other secure methods as permitted by Census immediately after export or import of the shipment from or into the United States in accordance with 15 CFR 30.7 (c).

USKPA licensees that issue U.S. KP certificates for export of rough diamonds include four firms that are common carriers and can issue KP certificates to third parties.  Several licensees undergo on-site performance reviews each year and under the MOU all licensees should be reviewed at least once every five years by the USKPA.  U.S. government agencies also conduct licensee reviews.  In accordance with the MOU, all licensees actively exporting rough diamonds using KP certificates acknowledged in writing they are in compliance with their licensing agreements with the USKPA.  The USKPA also maintains a database used by licensees to report issuance of KP certificates.

In 2018, State concluded work to ensure the effectiveness of the database containing information related to the KP certificates and other information concerning licensees.  The project upgraded and replaced the existing USKPA website, upgraded database security protocols and procedures, provided additional information safeguards, and limited the opportunity for user error when preparing KP certificates for export, in addition to other improvements.

To complement existing activities, DHS, through CBP, continues to conduct examinations of targeted rough diamond export shipments.

Part B: Variable

Pursuant to USG objective to review every USKPA licensee at least once in a five-year period, in 2019, U.S. government agencies visited three licensees to review their procedures, ensure that they were meeting the KP minimum requirements, and recommend any needed improvements.  The USKPA separately also visited three licensees in 2019.

C/2 Incoming Shipments

Part A: Constant

As the Importing Authority, CBP is responsible for implementing, enforcing, and monitoring provisions of CDTA.  In order to ensure adherence to the CDTA, CBP undertakes a number of actions, including:

  • Monitoring incoming shipments to assess compliance with the CDTA,
  • Performing inspections of cargo at U.S. Ports of Entry,
  • Developing standard policy and procedures to ensure uniform enforcement of the provisions of the CDTA,
  • Coordinating with State and international KP authorities to verify the authenticity of KP certificates,
  • Providing guidance to the importing and exporting community on KP-related issues.

Violations of the CDTA are addressed through seizure and penalty.

Part B: Variable

In 2019, CBP utilized risk-based methodologies to monitor and refer high risk shipments for examination.  Physical inspections were completed on incoming shipments determined to be high risk at numerous ports of entry.

In addition, CBP conducted post-importation follow up on shipments to assess compliance.  No KP violations were identified during this assessment.

In 2019, CBP worked to assess rough diamond trade data and identify potential areas of risk.  In addition, CBP conducted outreach with the trading community, partnership government agencies and foreign counterparts to develop intelligence associated with illegal importations.

In 2019, CBP provided an online database to field personnel to assist in the identification of fraudulent KP certificates.

In 2019, CBP seized one fraudulent KP certificate and one illegally imported rough diamond.  In addition, CBP issued 3 penalties to violators of the CDTA.

D. System of Internal Controls and Industry Self-Regulation

Part A: Constant

In order to strengthen implementation of the KP, many entities involved in the diamond industry have implemented a system of warranties (SOW) for rough and polished diamonds and jewelry containing diamonds.  Under this system, all buyers and sellers of rough and polished diamonds make the following statement on their invoices:

“The diamonds herein invoiced have been purchased from legitimate sources not involved in funding conflict and in compliance with United Nations resolutions.  The seller hereby guarantees that these diamonds are conflict free, based on personal knowledge and/or written guarantees provided by the supplier of these diamonds.”

Several major U.S.-based jewelry retailers publish policies on conflict diamonds and responsible sourcing on their websites.  State strongly supports and promotes industry’s enhanced due diligence and related voluntary efforts.

U.S. government agencies and the USKPA often interact on issues related to the responsibilities of licensees.  The U.S. KP Focal Point joined the Board of Directors for the USKPA as part of a larger effort to increase the number of board members from three to five and to instill greater official U.S. oversight over USKPA operations.

Part B: Variable

U.S. officials and USKPA representatives met on multiple occasions over the course of 2019.

In 2019, U.S. government agencies attended the OECD’s 13th Forum on Responsible Mineral Supply Chains and participated in various industry events and meetings to support efforts to increase transparency in the diamond and jewelry sector supply chains.

In 2019 State hosted a conference entitled Women’s Empowerment: Minerals, Responsible Sourcing, and the Jewelry Supply Chain to reinforce the importance of women’s economic empowerment and the critical role of supply chain due diligence.

E. Statistics

Part A: Constant

Since January 1, 2009, the United States has served as the Chair of the KP’s Working Group on Statistics (WGS).  In 2016, India became Vice Chair of the WGS.  In its capacity as Chair of the WGS, the U.S. leads efforts of the WGS to improve the submission and analysis of statistical data.  This position is delegated to the Census, which continues to maintain the statistical website it constructed to host global KP statistical data and works to develop other functions for the WGS.  These efforts include the adoption of a 2019 Administrative Decision for the submission of production data by type and the Administrative Decision for the guidelines document for conducting bi-lateral reconciliation of KP statistical data with trading partners.

Census collects, analyzes and publishes U.S. rough diamond trade and certificate count statistics on the KP statistical website quarterly.  Data reported to the website contains information reported on the KP certificates.  Census conducts bi-lateral reconciliation with CBP, the USKPA and its trading Partners up to five years from the date of issuance on a KP Certificate and export from the United States.

The U.S. has met all of the statistical reporting requirements in accordance with Annex III of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme’s Core document for the current reporting period.  The tables below indicate the United States previous statistical reporting from 2015-2018.

United States of America Statistical Reporting 2015-2018
Year Import Export KPC Counts
Volume (cts) Value (US$) Average Price (US$/cts) Volume (cts) Value (US$) Average Price (US$/cts) Imports Exports Total KPC Counts
2015 2,022,209.20 $340,673,705.21 $168.47 1,193,281.70 $235,818,546.65 $197.62 1,019 1,116 2,135
2016 2,222,622.05 $975,489,126.22 $438.89 1,192,981.39 $789,739,812.55 $661.99 1,093 1,081 2,174
2017 2,005,686.43 $1,102,405,001.80 $549.64 1,523,692.43 $942,670,198.59 $618.67 991 1,031 2,022
2018 2,251,544.54 $643,758,321.56 $285.92 1,621,700.15 $508,559,217.02 $313.60 924 939 1,863
Source: Kimberley Process Certification Scheme: Data as of February 20, 2020
KP Certificate Count 2015-2018
Year Imports KPC Export KPC Total KPC Count
2015 1019 1116 2135
2016 1093 1081 2174
2017 991 1031 2022
2018 924 939 1863
Source: Kimberley Process Certification Scheme: Data as of February 20, 2020
2018 Top 3 KP Participant Imports by Volume (cts)
Participants Volume (cts) % of Total Value
India 956,358.33 42.48%
Botswana 654,418.43 29.07%
European Union 479,783.22 21.31%
Total Volume Top 3 2,090,559.98 92.85%
All Others 160,984.56 7.15%
Total U.S. Imports by cts 2018 2,251,544.54 100.00%
Source: Kimberley Process Certification Scheme 02/20/2020
2018 Top 3 KP Participant Imports by Value (US$)
Participants Value (US$) % of Total Value
United Arab Emirates $ 95,541,484.24 14.84%
European Union $ 138,543,421.53 21.52%
Botswana $ 127,548,657.03 19.81%
Total Volume Top 3 $ 361,633,562.80 56.18%
All Others $ 282,124,758.76 43.82%
Total U.S. Imports by Value 2018 $ 643,758,321.56 100.00%
Source: Kimberly Process Certification Scheme 02/20/2020
HS Codes 2018 Export Commodity Classification % Total of Exports by Volume % Total of Exports by Value
Volume, cts Value, US$
7102.10 5,439.83 $ 756,874.46 0.34% 0.15%
7102.21 1,058,543.42 $ 15,367,173.09 65.27% 3.02%
7102.31 557,716.90 $ 492,435,169.47 34.39% 96.83%
Total 1,621,700.15 $ 508,559,217.02 100.00% 100.00%
Source: Kimberley Process Certification Scheme 02/20/2020
HS Codes 2018 Import Commodity Classification % Total of Imports by Volume % Total of Imports by Value
Volume, cts Value, US$ US$/cts
7102.10 4,547.04 $ 576,008.85 $ 126.68 0.20% 0.09%
7102.21 1,244,392.39 $ 10,867,825.88 $ 8.73 55.27% 1.69%
7102.31 1,002,605.11 $ 632,314,486.83 $ 630.67 44.53% 98.22%
Total 2,251,544.54 $ 643,758,321.56 $ 285.92 100.00% 100.00%
Source: Kimberley Process Certification Scheme 02/20/2020
Part B: Variable

Imports 2019 Overview

As of data reported on February 3, 2020 (Q3 2019 statistics), the U.S. imported approximately 1.37 million carats of rough diamonds valued at US $ 234.42 million.  The average price was US $ 171.20 per carat.  This constitutes a decrease of approximately 39.1% in volume, 63.6% in value and 40.1% in average price from 2018 to 2019.  Final tables to include Q4 2019 data will be available after March 31, 2020.

Exports 2019 Overview

U.S. KP rough diamond exports for 2019 as of February 3, 2020, show a total of 1.18 million carats valued at approximately US $ 232.3 million at an average price of US $ 196.55 per carat.  This reflects a decrease in volume, value, and average price of 27.1%, 54.3%, and 37.3%, respectively, from 2018 to 2019.  Final tables to include Q4 2019 data will be available after March 31, 2020.

Kimberley Process Certificate (KPC) Count 2019 Overview

As of Q3 2019, the U.S. received 633 KPCs and issued 668 KPCs for the period.  This represents a 31.49% decrease in KPCs used for imports and 28.86% decrease of KPCs used for exports when compared to 2018 totals.  Final tables to include Q4 2019 data will be available after March 31, 2020.

In 2019, the U.S. imported rough diamonds from 26 Participants.  The top three exporters of rough diamonds to the U.S. by volume (India, Botswana and European Union) accounted for 84% of the total volume of rough diamond imports.  The top three exporters by value (European Union, Botswana and the Russian Federation) accounted for 61.36% of the total value of rough diamond imports to the U.S.

In 2019, the U.S. exported rough diamonds to 23 Participants.  The top three importers of rough diamonds from the U.S. by volume (Israel, European Union and Canada) accounted for 78.91% of the total volume of U.S. exports.  In addition, the top three importers of rough diamonds from the U.S. by value (European Union, Israel and India) accounted for 70.77% of the total U.S. exports by value.

Unsorted (7102.10) rough diamonds imported to the U.S. consisted of less than 1% of the total imports and exports by volume and value in 2019.  The same year, industrial (7102.21) rough diamonds made up 51.53% of the total volume and 2.24% of the total value of U.S. rough diamond imports.  Exports of industrial diamonds from the U.S. were 42.9% of the total volume and 3.55% of the total value of U.S. exports.

Lastly, the U.S. imported non-industrial (7102.31) rough diamonds in 2019 that made up 48.11% of the total volume and 97.58% of the total value of rough diamond imports to the U.S. Exports of non-industrial (7102.31) diamonds from the U.S.  made up 56.94% of the total volume and 96.02% of the total value of U.S. rough diamond exports.

F. Implementation of Recommendations of Kimberley Process Review Visits

Part A: Constant

The United States continues to implement various recommendations of the 2012 KP Review visit, including improving internal coordination, strengthening oversight of licensees, and expanding law enforcement efforts.  As noted above, the United States enhanced oversight of the USKPA when it added the U.S. KP Focal Point to the USKPA Board of Directors.  U.S. efforts to replace and upgrade the USKPA website and database, enhanced training for import and export experts at importation points, reviews of licensees, and visits of a U.S. government delegation to Crater State Park are all reflections of the U.S. effort to implement KP review visit recommendations.

Part B: Variable

The United States notified the KP of its intention to host a KP Peer Review Visit in 2020.  While the visit was initially planned for May 2019, it has been postponed indefinitely due to the COVID19 outbreak.

G. Infringement and Cooperation with Respect to Enforcement

Part A: Constant

In 2009, State coordinated a process with CBP and the Smithsonian Institution to transport all forfeited diamonds to the Smithsonian for storage and, consistent with applicable law, possible research determined to be in U.S. government interests.

Part B: Variable

In 2019, CBP seized one shipment of rough diamonds for violation of the CDTA as the rough diamond shipment was not accompanied by a valid KP certificate.  This seizure case is currently open, pending completion of the administrative forfeiture process.

H. Miscellaneous

Part A: Constant

Central African Republic 

In 2018, the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Property Rights and Artisanal Diamond Development (PRADD) II program ended as planned.  Project accomplishments included: establishment of a Mining Data Center, managed by the government of the Central African Republic (CAR); 16 Local Monitoring Committees set up in KP Compliant Zones; 3,829 mining sites georeferenced; 18 KP “Focal Points” trained and supported in the field; 6 Peace and Reconciliation Committees established in Berberati; and 6 Local Pacts negotiated and approved in Berberati.

Also, in 2018, USAID procured the Artisanal Mining and Property Rights (AMPR) project, a $9.8 million project that will build on PRADD II’s work in CAR.  AMPR focuses on improving the KP system in CAR as well as social cohesion in KP Compliant Zones.

In 2018, the USGS published an open-file report describing the historic and recent spatial distributions of diamond occurrences and mining activity in the Western and Eastern regions of CAR.  The resulting historic and recent diamond mining activity database was used to generate production estimates for each sub-prefecture, thus continuing to support the CAR Monitoring Team’s (MT) effort to ensure legal diamond exports from KP compliant sub-prefectures.  The USGS briefed the KP and the CAR MT at the KP Plenary meeting in Brussels on the results of the USGS assessment of current diamond production from CAR, which assisted in the evaluation of the newly proposed compliant zones.  The results of the production assessment, as well as the methodology used, will be published in a peer-reviewed journal article in 2020.

The USGS serves as the leader of and one of the U.S. representatives to the KP CAR MT and represents the CAR MT in the KP Working Group on Monitoring.  This work has consisted of holding teleconferences, developing a protocol to decrease the time for approval of export shipments, providing technical expertise required to assess newly proposed compliant zones, as well as evaluating and monitoring proposed exports from “compliant” sub-prefectures, which are permitted to export rough diamonds from CAR under the Operational Framework.

Côte d’Ivoire 

PRADD II ended in September 2018 as planned.  Project accomplishments in Côte d’Ivoire include: 66% of exports legally registered at the mine level from 2015 to 2018; 61% of mining workers possessing basic knowledge of the KP and the mining code; and 949 households directly benefiting from livelihood diversification activities.

West and Central African Diamond Database 

Since 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been updating and maintaining a comprehensive diamond database of West and Central Africa.  At present, the database includes the countries of Mali, Ghana, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, and some parts of Cameroon.  This database is in the form of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) geodatabase, containing known primary and secondary diamond occurrences in West and Central Africa.  It includes information on the geographic location, deposit type, and characteristics of the diamonds.  The database is frequently updated as new deposits and mining areas are discovered and as artisanal miners move to new locations.  Research continues on the compilation of information on other countries in the region.  In addition to information on diamond deposits, geologic and base map features have also been compiled as part of the diamond database at a scale of 1:1,000,000.

In 2018, the USGS published an open-file report providing a database of historic and recent diamond mining activity and occurrences in Western and Eastern CAR.

U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) Reports on Child Labor and Forced Labor and Comply Chain App 

DOL produces three flagship reports on child labor and forced labor around the world.  ILAB publishes its annual Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor  report (TDA) and maintains the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor  (TVPRA list) and the List of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor  (Executive Order 13126).  The TDA report assesses government efforts to eliminate child labor in 131 countries and territories, and it includes information on child labor in diamond production.  The TVPRA list is mandated by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations and is published every other year.  The 2018 TVPRA list features 148 goods in 76 countries that DOL has reason to believe are produced by child or forced labor.  The list includes diamonds mined with child labor in Angola, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, and diamonds produced with forced labor in Angola and Sierra Leone.  Executive Order 13126 is intended to ensure that U.S. federal agencies do not procure goods made by forced or indentured child labor.  The list produced in accordance with this Executive Order includes diamonds from Sierra Leone because of forced child labor concerns.  All three reports are available on DOL’s Sweat & Toil  app.

To help mitigate these risks of child labor and forced labor in supply chains, including in the extractive sector, DOL developed Comply Chain: Business Tools for Labor Compliance in Global Supply Chains .  Comply Chain provides practical, step-by-step guidance on critical elements of social compliance, and is designed for companies that do not have a social compliance system in place or those needing to strengthen their existing systems.  Comply Chain contains many examples of specific good practices that companies, industry groups, and multi-stakeholder initiatives have put in place in these areas.  The first online edition of the App was published in December 2012.  In September 2017, DOL released the first version of the mobile application (for both Apple and Android) and updated the App in September 2018, including translations into French and Spanish.

Part B: Variable

Technical Assistance 

In 2019, State, USAID, and USGS cooperated to provide technical assistance related to the CAR, as well as the KP CAR MT.

In 2019 AMPR assisted the CAR Government in preparing a Road Map of needed reforms with the aim to increase the legal export of diamonds.  In partnership with CAR Government, AMPR completed a diagnostic report on smuggling of diamonds, which is the first such study to analyze illicit diamond flows in CAR.  Finally, AMPR developed a map of ASM gold sites in CAR.

Other KP Activities 

The United States participated in each of the KP Working Groups in 2019.  Additionally, the United States sent delegations to the Intersessional Meeting (held in Mumbai, India from June 17 to 21, 2019) and Plenary Meeting (held in New Delhi, India from November 18 to 22, 2019), the Ad Hoc Committee on Review and Reform (AHCRR) meetings, and to KP Working Group Chair face-to-face meetings held throughout the year.  The State Department led these delegations, which included representatives from Census, CBP, USAID, and USGS.  Also, the United States led the expert mission to the United Kingdom.

State supported the United Nations expert panels’ mandated work to investigate illicit trafficking of natural resources, including diamonds.  The United States considered sanctions related to the illicit trafficking of diamonds in violation of U.N. sanctions in some circumstances.

The United States, in its role as the leader of the KP CAR MT, initiated edits to the CAR MT Operational Framework and Terms of Reference, advocating for a notification rather than approval system for exports from CAR compliant zones.  The edits were adopted at the KP Plenary meeting in New Delhi.

The United States, in its role as the leader of the KP CAR MT, led the CAR MT in its evaluation of proposed compliant zones and approved three new sub-prefectures in CAR from which rough diamond shipments can be exported.  There are currently a total of eight compliant zones in CAR.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future