Combating human trafficking requires a comprehensive, multidisciplinary effort. Within government, this means the participation and coordination among agencies with a range of responsibilities that include criminal enforcement, labor enforcement, victim outreach and services, public awareness, education, trade policy, international development and programs, customs and immigration, intelligence, and diplomacy. Coordinated federal efforts that incorporate state, local, and tribal entities, the private sector, civil society, survivors, religious communities, and academia are essential to an integrated response to human trafficking that leverages resources and amplifies results. In the United States, federal agencies work to ensure a whole-of-government approach to address all aspects of human trafficking.
The President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (PITF) is a cabinet-level entity created by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000, which consists of some 15 agencies across the federal government responsible for coordinating U.S. government-wide efforts to combat trafficking in persons.
The TVPA, as amended in 2003, established the Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG), which consists of senior officials designated as representatives of the PITF agencies. The SPOG brings together federal agencies that address all aspects of human trafficking. Five standing committees meet regularly to advance substantive areas of the SPOG’s work: Research & Data, Grantmaking, Public Awareness & Outreach, Victims Services, and Procurement & Supply Chains.
In September 2017, the SPOG also approved the establishment of an Ad Hoc Working Group on American Indians and Alaska Natives to increase coordination among agencies responding to human trafficking in Indian Country and affecting American Indian and Alaska Native communities. In October 2018, the Working Group created for policymakers and tribes a [709 KB], which outlines federal anti-trafficking efforts focused on American Indian and Alaska Native communities to bolster stakeholders’ understanding of the U.S. Government’s response and enhance the coordination of agency programming and tribal engagement.
The PITF incorporates the federal agencies listed below as well as the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the White House Offices of Management and Budget, the National Security Council, and the Domestic Policy Council.
Department of State (DOS) engages with foreign governments, international and intergovernmental organizations, and civil society to develop and implement effective strategies for confronting modern slavery. DOS chairs the PITF and the SPOG, funds international anti-trafficking programs, and produces the annual Trafficking in Persons Report.
(DOD) endeavors to ensure that the U.S. military, civilian employees, and contractors have the necessary tools for awareness and prevention of human trafficking, including through training, distribution of awareness materials, and development of policies and procedures to address vulnerabilities in defense contracts.
(DOJ) conducts human trafficking investigations and prosecutions and provides grant funding for victim services. DOJ supports anti-trafficking task forces; conducts trainings, research, and outreach initiatives; and produces the annual .
(DOI) provides anti-trafficking training for personnel and partners with federal, state, local, and tribal entities to combat human trafficking and provide victim services in American Indian and Alaskan Native communities.
(DOL) assists law enforcement partners in the identification of trafficking victims. In addition, DOL engages internationally with governments as well as business, labor, and civil society groups to implement models that work to reduce child labor and forced labor, and produces the following reports: ; ; and .
(HHS) funds victim assistance services programs and the , issues Certification and Eligibility Letters for foreign national victims of trafficking, provides training and technical assistance to local communities, and conducts public awareness campaigns and public health initiatives focused on human trafficking.
(DOT) partners with other U.S. government agencies and transportation industry leaders across the country to train stakeholders, develop educational tools, and disseminate awareness materials focused on anti-trafficking initiatives.
(ED) raises awareness of human trafficking in school communities; provides technical assistance; encourages schools to embed the issue in emergency operations and management planning; and works with federal, state, and local agencies to develop and disseminate resource materials.
(DHS) conducts domestic and international investigations of human trafficking, conducts public awareness campaigns through the Blue Campaign, provides education and training, grants immigration benefits to victims of human trafficking, and authorizes victims who are potential witnesses to remain in the United States temporarily during the investigation or prosecution of their traffickers.
(USAID) funds international anti-trafficking programs; engages in innovative private sector partnerships; and integrates anti-trafficking activities across development sectors, applying research and evaluation and strengthening efforts in conflict and crisis-affected environments.
(EEOC) investigates, attempts to informally resolve, and litigates charges alleging discrimination and pursues cases on behalf of trafficked workers and secures civil remedies (e.g. monetary and equitable relief) for trafficking victims.