More information about Djibouti is available on the Djibouti Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.
The United States established consular representation in the colony of French Somaliland in 1929. Formal diplomatic relations between the United States and Republic of Djibouti began in 1977, following independence from France. Djibouti is a republic with a parliament and executive branch led by the President, who is elected every five years. The National Assembly is the country’s legislature, consisting of 65 members, also elected every five years.
Djibouti is strategically located in the Horn of Africa and is a key U.S. partner on security, regional stability, and humanitarian efforts across the region. The Djiboutian government is supportive of U.S. interests. Djibouti hosts the only enduring U.S. military presence in Africa at Camp Lemonnier, established by formal agreement in 2003. A bilateral agreement with the Government of Djibouti also provides the United States with access to Djibouti’s port facilities and airport.
U.S. Assistance to Djibouti
The U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Food for Peace program maintains a warehouse for pre-positioned food assistance commodities in Djibouti, serving as a hub for rapid response in parts of Africa and Asia. International Broadcasting Bureau facilities in Djibouti transmit Arabic-language programming, and Voice of America Somali Service broadcasts to the Horn and the Arabian Peninsula.
Djibouti’s economic growth is hindered by a rapidly expanding workforce that is poorly matched to the economic needs of the country, resulting in high unemployment, and a lack of qualified applicants for jobs in certain sectors. Other obstacles to growth include high electricity costs, chronic water shortages, poor health indicators, food insecurity, and governance challenges. U.S. assistance supports a program portfolio to accelerate economic growth; strengthen primary education and technical training opportunities for youth; improve, health, and build a vibrant civil society to contribute more fully to Djibouti’s development priorities.
One of the key goals shared by the Governments of Djibouti and the United States is to increase employment in the Djiboutian workforce. The United States is focused on improving the quality of vocational workforce readiness programs, facilitating sustainable ties linkages between vocational education centers and employment providers, and strengthening job placement and retention services. In partnership with the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MENFOP), the Ministry of Labor and the Djibouti Chamber of Commerce, U.S. assistance will support the enrollment of 12,000 young Djiboutians in skills-building programs to prepare them for the jobs of today. The workforce development program is helping youth build entrepreneurial skills and enhance their English language skills and preparing them to become leaders in industries like transportation and logistics, tourism, hospitality, and construction.
U.S. assistance supports MENFOP’s efforts to improve the quality of primary of primary education across the country. U.S. assistance focuses on improving reading and literacy skills of 55,000 primary school students through improved reading instruction, enhanced community participation in early grade reading, and improved policy environment to support reading.
U.S. health assistance focuses on the HIV/AIDS prevention-care-treatment continuum for key populations and priority populations in Djibouti-city, and along migratory paths and critical cross-border trade routes.
U.S. assistance is intended to strengthen Djiboutian civil society organizations, foster accountable governance, and improve service delivery. The Civil Society Organization Strengthening program involves a mix of technical assistance, training, and capacity development and, works with and within existing USAID activities in health, education sectors, as well as women empowerment to ensure that transparency, accountability, and participatory governance approaches are more deliberately integrated to help improve key services delivery.
Under the Power Africa initiative, U.S. assistance focuses on supporting private sector investment in renewable energy generation through a U.S. developed biomass project.
U.S. assistance through the Food for Peace program responds to ongoing food insecurity concerns in rural Djibouti exacerbated each year by drought and climate change. The United Nations World Food Program is the United States’ largest food security partner in Djibouti, distributing approximately $4 million in food assistance and other services each year.
Educational and cultural exchange programs cement people-to-people ties between the United States and Djibouti. Through the Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI), the International Visitors Leadership Program, the Fulbright Program, and English language programs, Djiboutian leaders and American experts are exchanging ideas and expertise on issues of mutual interest and developing leadership and skills training.
Bilateral Economic Relations
Djibouti is eligible for preferential trade benefits under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). Djibouti hosts modern port facilities, which enable the growth of the logistics and services sector. Before 2035, Djibouti is expected to finish several major infrastructure projects including: a natural gas pipeline, a liquefaction plant, an export terminal, a geothermal plant, renewable energy projects, and what will be Africa’s largest free trade zone, the Djibouti International Free Trade Zone. A new railroad connecting Djibouti City and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia began operations in early 2018. These projects are part of the Government of Djibouti’s ambitious plan to turn Djibouti into a major commercial and shipping hub for East Africa. U.S. exports to Djibouti include vegetable oil, wheat, machinery, and foodstuffs. U.S. imports typically transit Djibouti from origin countries farther inland such as Ethiopia. These imports include coffee, vegetables, perfumery, and cosmetics. Landlocked Ethiopia exports nearly 90 percent of its goods through Djibouti’s ports. The United States has signed a trade and investment framework agreement with the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, of which Djibouti is a member.
Djibouti’s Membership in International Organizations
Djibouti is a member of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), Arab League, and Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), among other organizations.
The ambassador is also the U.S. diplomatic representative to IGAD, which is headquartered in Djibouti. Principal embassy officials are listed in the Department’s Key Officers List.
Djibouti maintains an embassy in the United States at Suite 515, 1156 15th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005, (tel. 202-331-0270).
More information about Djibouti is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here: