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More information about Mexico is available on the Mexico Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.


On December 12, 2022, the United States and Mexico will celebrate 200 years of diplomatic relations.  U.S. relations with Mexico are strong and vital, and Mexico remains one of the United States’ closest and most valued partners.  The countries share a 2,000-mile border with 47 active land ports of entry.  This bilateral relationship directly impacts the lives and livelihoods of millions of Americans, whether the issue is trade and economic development, education exchange, citizen security, drug control, migration, human trafficking, entrepreneurship, innovation, environmental protection, climate change, or public health.  The broad scope of relations between the United States and Mexico extends beyond diplomatic and official relations.  It encompasses extensive commercial, cultural, and educational ties.  Hundreds of thousands of people cross the border legally each day.  In addition, an estimated 1.6 million U.S. citizens live in Mexico, and Mexico is the top foreign destination for U.S. travelers.

Pandemic Response and Recovery

The United States works closely with the Mexican government and international partners to combat the pandemic and reduce secondary economic effects in both countries.  The United States worked with Mexico to distribute COVID-19 vaccines as a part of our ongoing solidarity with the people of Mexico as the world recovers from this devastating pandemic.  The United States sent a total of 16.9 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines to Mexico as of August 2022.  Mexico also donated vaccines to other countries in the hemisphere.

Bilateral Economic Issues and the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement

In 2021, U.S. goods and services trade with Mexico totaled $725.7 billion, making Mexico our second largest trading partner.  According to the Department of Commerce, U.S. exports of goods and services to Mexico supported an estimated 1.1 million jobs in 2019 (latest data available).

In 2021, Mexico was the second-largest source of foreign crude oil to the United States as well as the top destination for U.S. petroleum product exports and U.S. natural gas.  Other top U.S. exports to Mexico include machinery, electrical machinery, vehicles, mineral fuels, and plastics.  The stock of foreign direct investment by U.S. companies in Mexico stood at $110.7 billion in 2021 while Mexican stock investment in the United States was over $48.1 billion in 2021, according to the Department of Commerce.

The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) entered into force on July 1, 2020, replacing NAFTA as the free trade agreement for North America.  The USMCA supports mutually beneficial trade leading to freer markets, fairer trade, and robust economic growth in North America.  The agreement generates job opportunities, improves worker protections, prevents forced labor, increases agricultural trade, produces new investments in vital manufacturing industries, protects intellectual property rights, creates similar environmental standards across the three countries, and updates digital trade protections.

The USMCA requires a formal review of the agreement at least every six years.  These periodic reviews are designed to ensure that the terms of the agreement remain beneficial for all parties and to identify emerging issues for potential revisions.  The agreement is set to terminate on July 1, 2036, but can be extended for an additional 16 years by all three countries after each review.  Also, USMCA includes a Rapid Response Mechanism (RRM) to handle plant-level labor disputes related to denial of rights.  As of August 2022, six cases had been filed using the RRM.

Mexico, a strong promoter of trade liberalization, maintains twelve trade agreements with 46 countries plus 32 investment promotion agreements, and nine limited economic agreements, including pacts with Japan, the European Union, and many Latin American partners.

On September 12, 2022, senior government officials from the United States and Mexico met in Mexico City to convene the U.S.-Mexico High-Level Economic Dialogue (HLED). The dialogue focuses on building back together to improve the regional business environment and strengthen supply chain resilience, promoting sustainable economic and social development in southern Mexico and Central America, securing the tools for future prosperity by supporting regulatory compatibility in the information, communication, telecom, and infrastructure sectors, and investing in our people.  The Department of Commerce, the Department of State, and the U.S. Trade Representative co-chair the annual cabinet-level dialogue.  Periodic updates related to the HLED are published at , where stakeholders may submit input.

The United States and Mexico maintain deep ties in science and technology cooperation, with collaborative research on health, meteorology, hydrology, earth sciences, and energy technology facilitated by the 1972 Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation.  U.S. science agencies such as NOAA, NSF, NIST, NIH, USGS, NASA, and DOE contribute to a solid body of bilateral scientific research.  In 2021, Mexico joined 21 other countries in signing the Artemis Accords with NASA, outlining the principles and rules to enhance governance of the responsible exploration of outer space.


The United States works with Mexico to address the root causes of irregular migration and on implementing humane migration management policies that prioritize control and security for our respective borders; respect for the human rights of migrants; and access to international protection for those in need.  Mexico is a member of the Regional Conference on Migration (RCM), an eleven-member consultative mechanism to coordinate regional migration policies.  RCM member countries commit to addressing issues of international migration in a multilateral context that respects orderly movements and human rights.  Mexico also participates in the Comprehensive Regional Protection and Solutions Framework, known by its Spanish acronym MIRPS— a regional application of the Global Compact for Refugees wherein countries collaborate to prevent and respond to forced displacement within their borders and regionally.  The United States supports MIRPS efforts as a member and incoming chair of its parallel donor Support Platform and with humanitarian funding contributions through international organizations.

Mexico is a source, transit, and destination country for migrants and asylum seekers in the region.  The U.S. government supports international organization and NGO partners to respond to the needs of asylum seekers, refugees, internally displaced persons, and vulnerable migrants in Mexico.  With USG funds, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) assisted the Mexican Commission for Refugee Aid (COMAR) to increase its asylum case registration and processing capacity by 400 percent since 2018.  The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) builds the capacity of Mexico’s border and migration officials to humanely manage migration and to coordinate with Mexican and U.S. law enforcement to secure borders.  INL programming also increases the capacity of Mexican security and justice sector institutions to identify, investigate, and prosecute human smuggling and trafficking.

In June 2021, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Mexican Agency for International Cooperation and Development (AMEXCID) signed a Memorandum of Understanding to strengthen strategic and technical cooperation and promote development in Central America.  This MOU supports U.S. and Mexican efforts to exchange knowledge, experiences, assets, and resources to address the root causes of irregular migration in Central America.  In December 2021, the United States and Mexico announced Sembrando Oportunidades, a new bilateral framework for development cooperation to address the root causes of migration from Central America.  The United States and Mexico engage regional and international partners to build a more prosperous and secure Central America to address the underlying causes of irregular migration and forced displacement, so that citizens of the region can build better lives for themselves and their families at home.

U.S.-Mexico Border

The border region represents a combined population of approximately 15 million people.  Cooperation between the United States and Mexico along the border includes coordinating with state and local officials on cross-border infrastructure, transportation planning, and security as well as collaboration with institutions that address migration, natural resource, environment, and health issues.

In November 2021, President Biden signed the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, a historic investment in U.S. infrastructure that included approximately $1.4 billion for construction and modernization projects at land ports of entry along the U.S.-Mexico border.  During their July 12, 2022, meeting, Presidents Biden and Lopez Obrador reaffirmed their commitment to create borders that are more resilient, more efficient, and safer and that will enhance our shared commerce.  The joint effort seeks to align priorities, unite border communities, and make the flow of commerce and people more secure and efficient.  Mexico committed to invest $1.5 billion on border infrastructure between 2022 and 2024.

In 2010, the United States and Mexico created the 21st Century Border Management Initiative (21CB) to spur binational advancements to promote a modern, secure, and efficient border.  High-level representatives from the U.S. and Mexican governments meet annually in the 21CB Executive Steering Committee to adopt action plans that guide bilateral efforts to modernize and expand ports of entry along the shared border; facilitate the flow of trade and travelers between the two countries; and strengthen cooperation on public safety in the border region.

The U.S. and Mexican governments also meet through the multi-agency Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group (BBBXG) to advance joint initiatives that improve the efficiency of existing crossings and coordinate planning for new ones.  The BBBXG meets three times a year and provides the ten U.S. and Mexican border states, private sector representatives, and other public participants a forum to discuss cross-border infrastructure.  The BBBXG also discusses many federal, state, and local mechanisms that impact the border region, including Border Master Plans to coordinate infrastructure and development and close collaboration on transportation and customs issues.

The United States and Mexico also have a long history of cooperation on environmental and natural resource issues, particularly in the border area, where there are challenges caused by rapid population growth, urbanization, industrialization, and climate change.  Cooperative activities between the United States and Mexico take place under a number of mechanisms, such as the North American Development Bank; the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation; the Border Health Commission; and a variety of other agreements that address health of border residents, wildlife, migratory birds, national parks, and similar issues.

The International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), created by a treaty between the United States and Mexico, manages a wide variety of water resource and boundary preservation issues.  The U.S. and Mexican Sections of the IBWC work closely to distribute treaty-stipulated portions of water from the Rio Grande and Colorado River to both countries.  The IBWC also works to mitigate and prevent cross-border flows of untreated wastewater.  In that capacity, the U.S. Section of IBWC is one of the Environmental Protection Agency’s lead partners in planning and implementing construction of major wastewater infrastructure – particularly in the Tijuana-San Diego area – under a $300 million appropriation provided as part of the USMCA implementation act.

U.S. Security Cooperation with Mexico

Security is a shared responsibility.  Neither country can be secure if the other is not.  Cooperation between Mexico and the United States has never been more vital in the fight to combat the deadly threat of illicit fentanyl, heroin, and synthetic drugs.  The United States partners with Mexico to reduce the impact of illicit drugs on U.S. and Mexican communities, dismantle criminal organizations, manage migration, improve citizen security, reduce criminal impunity, combat illicit arms trafficking, and promote human rights and the rule of law.  U.S.-funded training, equipment, and technical assistance complement Mexico’s own investment in building the capacity of Mexican institutions and personnel to achieve these goals.

Through the Bicentennial Framework for Security, Public Health, and Safe Communities, adopted at the 2021 High-Level Security Dialogue, the United States and Mexico are increasing joint efforts to combat production of synthetic and other illicit drugs; better understand and reduce drug demand; increase interdiction of drugs; pursue transnational criminal organization (TCO) prosecutions and finances; and reduce the amount of illicit firearms, bulk cash, and other illicit goods crossing the U.S.-Mexico border.  Because of this collaboration, the shared border is more secure, information sharing is more fluid, and both countries benefit from professionally trained officials and state-of-the-art equipment to confront transnational crime.

The United States and Mexico partner to combat transnational organized crime and drug trafficking while strengthening human rights and the rule of law.  Between 2008 and 2021, the United States appropriated $3.3 billion in equipment, training, and capacity building for Mexican justice and law enforcement sectors.  Security cooperation between U.S. and Mexican law enforcement agencies helps police, prosecutors, and judges share best practices and expand capacity to track criminals, drugs, arms, and money to disrupt the business model of transnational crime.

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programs support Mexican efforts to improve citizen security.  USAID programs help communities resist the effects of crime and violence while supporting Mexico’s implementation of criminal justice constitutional reforms that protect citizens’ rights.

Educational and Cultural Exchanges

The United States has a robust series of educational and cultural programs with Mexico that support young leaders, students, civil society, and entrepreneurs.  They provide English language learning, advance STEAM education, identify and advise on U.S. higher education opportunities, strengthen civil society, enhance security procedures, and expand economic opportunity.  They include music and sports diplomacy such as the International Sports Programming Initiative, Sports Visitor  and Sports Envoy  programs, the Global Sports Mentoring Program , and the e-sports leadership program for youth; the Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation; the Academy of Women Entrepreneurs; the U.S. Speaker Program; leadership programs such as Jóvenes en Acción (Youth in Action); the Young Leaders of the Americas Initiative; the Study of the U.S. Institutes program which includes courses targeting indigenous and Afro-Mexican women; Arts Envoy  and American Music Abroad Programming focused on engagement with underserved communities; the International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP), the TechCamp Program, and English language opportunities for teachers and learners through such high-demand initiatives as the English Access Microscholarship, Online Professional English Network (OPEN) , and English Language Virtual Educator , Fellow  & Specialist  programs. There are over 40,000 alumni of U.S. government-funded or sponsored exchange programs.

EducationUSA has 23 advising centers throughout Mexico, which provide free and unbiased information on U.S. higher education opportunities to Mexican students.  Mexico is the ninth top sender worldwide of international students to the U.S. (and the sixth top sender to U.S. community colleges).  Mexico is the twelfth top study abroad destination worldwide for U.S. students.  The EducationUSA Opportunity Funds program assists highly qualified Mexican students who are likely to be awarded full financial aid from U.S. colleges and universities but lack the financial resources to cover the up-front costs to apply, such as testing, application fees, or airfare.  Many of these students receive offers of admission and generous scholarships from U.S. higher education institutions.

The 100K Innovation Fund is the trusted USG-branded public/private sector collaboration between the Department of State, U.S. embassies, and regional corporations, foundations, and higher education institutions (HEIs) that supports HEI-partnerships to create new models of short-term academic exchange and training opportunities for underserved students in the United States and the rest of the Western Hemisphere, including Mexico.  For the last seven years, Mexico has been the top country in this hemispheric-wide education initiative to partner with U.S. higher education institutions.  The Innovation Fund had awarded 84 grants to teams of 113 higher education institutions in 28 U.S states and 20 Mexican states.  100K partnerships provide more students with critical access to new models of academic exchange and training programs that provide workforce development skills in STEM, public health, technology, financial inclusion, agriculture/food sciences, and other areas.

The Fulbright Program in Mexico is one of the largest in the world.  Since 1948, nearly 9,000 students, scholars, and teachers have received Fulbright awards, and many have risen to prominent positions in business, academics, culture, and politics.  The binational Fulbright Commission (U.S.-Mexico Commission for Educational and Cultural Exchange) was established in 1990 and receives annual contributions from the Governments of the United States and Mexico.  In keeping with the binational spirit of the program, since 1992, all Fulbright grants administered by the Commission are referred to as Fulbright-Garcia Robles grants, in honor of Mexican Ambassador Emeritus and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Alfonso Garcia Robles.

Mexico is also a significant participant in BridgeUSA, a cultural and educational program that offers exchanges in 13 different categories.  Mexico is one of the few countries with post-pandemic levels of participation greater than before COVID-19.  In 2019, 9,808 Mexicans started new programs, while 10,339 started new programs in 2020.  Currently, there are 14,183 active exchange visitors from Mexico participating in BridgeUSA.  The three categories with the most exchange visitors are Summer Work Travel (5,501), Camp Counselor (3,221), and Au Pair (2,838).

The Jóvenes en Acción exchange is a partnership between the Department of State, the Mexican Secretariat of Public Education (Secretaría de Educación Pública), the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City, and the embassy’s private partners.  Since 2010, ECA and Mission Mexico have brought nearly 900 high school students from Mexico to the United States for a four-week exchange program focused on leadership development, civic engagement, and community service.  The exchange participants apply in groups of three to four with a teacher who serves as a mentor when they return home and implement a service project to address an issue plaguing their community such as violence, substance abuse, climate change, or cybersecurity.

The year 2020 marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of the U.S.-Mexico treaty on the recovery and return of stolen archaeological, historical, and cultural properties.  This was the first international treaty related to cultural property trafficking.  Predating the UNESCO 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, this treaty demonstrates both countries’ leadership on this topic.  Through the U.S. Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation (AFCP), the United States has awarded $1.7 million in grants since 2002 for nine projects to preserve Mexico’s cultural heritage.

Mexico’s Membership in International Organizations

Mexico is a strong supporter of the United Nations and a member of several other regional organizations.  Mexico was elected to a 2021-2022 non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council and a 2021-2023 seat on the UN Economic and Social Council.  Mexico and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; International Energy Agency; International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, World Trade Organization, International Maritime Organization, Organization of American States, and the Wassenaar Arrangement on conventional arms.

The United States, Mexico, and Canada collaborate through the North American Leaders’ Summit, revived in 2021, and in the 2022 Los Angeles Declaration on Migration and Protection, endorsed by 21 countries in the hemisphere.

Bilateral Representation

The Department’s Key Officers List includes principal U.S. embassy and consulate officials in Mexico.

Mexico maintains an embassy in the United States at 1911 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006 (tel. 202-728-1600).

More information about Mexico is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here:

CIA World Factbook Mexico Page 
U.S. Embassy
U.S.-Mexico High-Level Economic Dialogue
USAID Mexico Page 
History of U.S. Relations With Mexico
Office of the U.S. Trade Representative – Mexico
Office of the U.S. Trade Repetitive – United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement
U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Statistics International Offices Page 
Library of Congress Country Studies 
International Boundary and Water Commission, U.S. Section Page 
Travel Information
Department of Energy: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Analysis 
Department of Commerce: 2014 Mid-Year Review of High Level Economic Dialogue Progress 
Trilateral Agreement with United States, Canada, and Mexico to Expand Trusted Traveler Programs

U.S. Department of State

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