More information about Somalia is available on the Somalia Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.
The United States established diplomatic relations with Somalia in 1960, following its constituent parts’ independence from British and Italian administration, respectively. A 1969 coup replaced Somalia’s elected government with military rule that reflected both ideological and economic dependence on the Soviet Union. Following war with Ethiopia in the 1970s, Somalia began turning toward the West, including the United States, for international support, military equipment, and economic aid. The start of a civil war in the 1980s led to the collapse of Somalia’s central government in 1991.
Following this, various groupings of Somali factions, sometimes supported by outside forces, sought to control the national territory (or portions thereof) and fought one another. Although the United States never formally severed diplomatic relations with Somalia, the U.S. Embassy in Somalia was closed from 1991 to 2018. Numerous efforts at mediation and reconciliation were attempted during these years, and a transitional government was established in 2004. In 2012, Somalia completed its political transition through a limited, indirect election of a new federal parliament and president. With the adoption of a provisional constitution, the United States formally recognized the new federal government of Somalia (FGS) on January 17, 2013. In February 2017, the FGS completed its first national electoral process since the 2012 transition, selecting a new federal parliament and a new president, President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed. Parliamentary and presidential elections due to be completed in 2021 are underway but have been delayed repeatedly by disagreements over implementation of the process and a succession of political crises.
U.S. foreign policy objectives in Somalia are to promote political and economic stability, prevent the use of Somalia as a safe haven for international terrorism, and alleviate the humanitarian crisis caused by years of conflict, drought, flooding, and poor governance. The United States is committed to helping Somalia’s government strengthen democratic institutions, improve stability and security, and deliver services for the Somali people. Since 2013, the FGS has made progress establishing government institutions, negotiating relationships with regional authorities, and supporting community stabilization. The United States supports the FGS’s state-building agenda for completing federal state formation, completing a review of the provisional constitution and holding a constitutional referendum, preparing for democratic elections, promoting reconciliation, and strengthening responsive and representative governing institutions. The United States recognizes the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Somalia within its 1960 borders in accordance with the Somali provisional constitution, which includes Somaliland and Puntland. The United States also has supported the efforts of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and the Somali national forces in driving the al-Shabaab terrorist organization out of strategically important population centers and in extending security throughout Somalia.
U.S. Assistance to Somalia
The United States has provided more than $3 billion in humanitarian assistance for Somalia since 2006 to address the problems of drought, famine, and refugees. Since 2011, the United States has provided an additional $253 million in development assistance to support economic, political, and social sectors to achieve greater stability, establish a formal economy, obtain access to basic services, and attain representation through legitimate, credible governance. The United States works closely with other donor partners and international organizations to support social services and the development of an effective and representative security sector, including military, police, and justice sector, while supporting ongoing AMISOM efforts.
Bilateral Economic Relations
The United States has little trade or investment with Somalia. U.S. exports to Somalia include legumes, grain, baking-related goods, donated products, and machinery. U.S. imports from Somalia include precious stones and low-value shipments.
Somalia’s Membership in International Organizations
Somalia and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, and World Bank.
On December 2, 2018, for the first time since the closure of the U.S. embassy in Mogadishu on January 5, 1991, the United States reestablished a permanent diplomatic presence in Somalia. In addition to the embassy in Mogadishu, the U.S. mission to Somalia operates partially from the U.S. embassy in Nairobi. The U.S. embassy in Nairobi handles consular coverage for Somalia. Other principal mission officials are listed in the Department’s Key Officers List.
The Somali embassy in Washington is located at 1609 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 200o8 (tel. 202.853.9164).
More information about Somalia is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here: