Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Cynthia Kierscht and Associate Deputy Minister of Natural Resources Canada Shawn Tupper finalized the U.S.-Canada Critical Minerals Action Plan in December 2019. This achieves a goal set by President Trump and Prime Minister Trudeau in June 2019. Cooperation under the Action Plan includes securing the supply of critical minerals for strategic industries and defense; improving information sharing on critical mineral resources; engaging with the private sector; and working together in multilateral fora and with third countries. The Action Plan outlines a range of joint activities, such as research and development cooperation, supply chain modeling, and increased support for industry. The comprehensive, whole-of-government approach outlined in the Action Plan will strengthen the U.S.-Canada supply chain for critical minerals, which are essential to U.S. and Canadian security and future prosperity.